User avatar
rolan_transformer
95
1
What 31 typical elements does Victor Propp identify in The Morphology of the Fairy Tale? Write a list with examples for each item

Pro Search

3 steps completed

Answer

Vladimir Propp, a Soviet formalist scholar, analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements. Propp referred to these "narrative elements" or "units" as narratemes and asserted there were 31 of them
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
.
Here are the 31 narratemes with examples for each item:
  1. Absentation: Someone goes missing. Example: In "Hansel and Gretel," the children are abandoned in the forest.
  2. Interdiction: Hero is warned. Example: In "Little Red Riding Hood," Red Riding Hood is warned not to talk to strangers.
  3. Violation of interdiction. Example: In "Little Red Riding Hood," Red Riding Hood talks to the wolf despite being warned not to.
  4. Reconnaissance: Villain seeks something. Example: In "Jack and the Beanstalk," the giant seeks Jack.
  5. Delivery: Villain gains information. Example: In "Cinderella," the stepsisters learn about the ball and plan to attend.
  6. Trickery: Villain attempts to deceive victim. Example: In "The Three Little Pigs," the wolf tricks the pigs into letting him in their houses.
  7. Complicity: Unwitting helping of the villain. Example: In "Snow White," the huntsman is tricked into sparing Snow White's life.
  8. Villainy: Villain causes harm. Example: In "Sleeping Beauty," the wicked fairy curses the princess.
  9. Mediation: Misfortune or lack is made known. Example: In "Rapunzel," the prince learns about Rapunzel and her tower.
  10. Counteraction: Seeker agrees to counteraction. Example: In "Rumpelstiltskin," the miller's daughter agrees to give her firstborn child to Rumpelstiltskin in exchange for his help.
  11. Departure: Hero leaves home. Example: In "The Wizard of Oz," Dorothy leaves Kansas and goes to Oz.
  12. First function of the donor: Hero is tested. Example: In "The Lion King," Simba is tested by Scar.
  13. Hero's reaction: Hero reacts to the actions of the future donor. Example: In "The Lion King," Simba is angry with Rafiki for telling him to look in the water.
  14. Receipt of a magical agent: Hero acquires a magical agent. Example: In "Harry Potter," Harry receives his wand.
  15. Guidance: Hero is transferred, delivered, or led to the object of search. Example: In "Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark," Indiana Jones is led to the Ark of the Covenant.
  16. Struggle: Hero and villain engage in conflict. Example: In "Star Wars," Luke Skywalker fights Darth Vader.
  17. Branding: Hero is marked. Example: In "The Hunger Games," Katniss is given a mockingjay pin.
  18. Victory: Villain is defeated. Example: In "The Lord of the Rings," Frodo destroys the One Ring.
  19. Liquidation: Initial misfortune or lack is resolved. Example: In "Beauty and the Beast," the curse is lifted and the Beast becomes human again.
  20. Return: Hero returns home. Example: In "The Odyssey," Odysseus returns to Ithaca.
  21. Pursuit: Hero is pursued. Example: In "The Fugitive," Dr. Richard Kimble is pursued by the police.
  22. Rescue: Hero is rescued from pursuit. Example: In "The Matrix," Neo is rescued by Morpheus.
  23. Unrecognized arrival: Hero unrecognized. Example: In "The Count of Monte Cristo," Edmond Dantès returns to France under a false identity.
  24. Unfounded claims: False hero presents unfounded claims. Example: In "The Wizard of Oz," the Wizard presents himself as a powerful wizard but is later revealed to be a fraud.
  25. Difficult task: Hero is given a difficult task. Example: In "The Hobbit," Bilbo is tasked with stealing the Arkenstone from Smaug.
  26. Solution: Task is resolved. Example: In "The Chronicles of Narnia," the children help Aslan defeat the White Witch.
  27. Recognition: Hero is recognized. Example: In "The Lion King," Simba is recognized as the rightful king.
  28. Exposure: False hero is exposed. Example: In "The Emperor's New Clothes," the emperor is exposed as being naked.
  29. Transfiguration: Hero is given a new appearance. Example: In "The Little Mermaid," Ariel is given legs.
  30. Punishment: Villain is punished. Example: In "The Three Little Pigs," the wolf is boiled alive.
  31. Wedding: Hero marries and ascends the throne. Example: In "Cinderella," Cinderella marries the prince and becomes a princess.
Give 5 examples for each of the 31 narratemes

Pro Search

6 steps completed

Answer

Examples of Vladimir Propp's 31 Narratemes

Vladimir Propp was a Russian formalist scholar who analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements. He referred to these narrative elements or units as narratemes and asserted there were 31 of them
1
.
Here are five examples for each of the 31 narratemes:
  1. Absentation: Someone goes missing
  • A child is kidnapped by a witch in "Hansel and Gretel"
  • The father goes missing in "Cinderella"
  • The youngest son goes missing in "The Three Little Pigs"
  • The youngest daughter goes missing in "The Twelve Dancing Princesses"
  • The princess is kidnapped by a dragon in "The Princess and the Dragon"
  1. Interdiction: Hero is warned
  • The hero is warned not to enter the forbidden room in "Bluebeard"
  • The hero is warned not to eat the fruit in "Adam and Eve"
  • The hero is warned not to look back in "Orpheus and Eurydice"
  • The hero is warned not to open the box in "Pandora's Box"
  • The hero is warned not to talk to strangers in "Little Red Riding Hood"
  1. Violation of interdiction
  • Bluebeard's wife opens the forbidden room in "Bluebeard"
  • Adam and Eve eat the forbidden fruit in "Adam and Eve"
  • Orpheus looks back and loses Eurydice in "Orpheus and Eurydice"
  • Pandora opens the box and releases all the evils in "Pandora's Box"
  • Little Red Riding Hood talks to the wolf in "Little Red Riding Hood"
  1. Reconnaissance: Villain seeks something
  • The witch seeks the children in "Hansel and Gretel"
  • The queen seeks Snow White's heart in "Snow White"
  • The wolf seeks to eat the pigs in "The Three Little Pigs"
  • The giant seeks Jack in "Jack and the Beanstalk"
  • The dragon seeks the princess in "The Princess and the Dragon"
  1. Delivery: Hero receives something
  • The fairy godmother gives Cinderella a dress in "Cinderella"
  • The huntsman gives Snow White's heart to the queen in "Snow White"
  • The fairy gives the princess a spindle in "Sleeping Beauty"
  • The genie gives Aladdin a lamp in "Aladdin"
  • The fairy gives the frog a kiss in "The Frog Prince"
  1. Trickery: Villain attempts to deceive hero
  • The wolf disguises himself as Little Red Riding Hood's grandmother in "Little Red Riding Hood"
  • The witch disguises herself as the prince in "Rapunzel"
  • The fox tricks the gingerbread man into jumping onto his nose in "The Gingerbread Man"
  • The wolf disguises himself as a sheep in "The Boy Who Cried Wolf"
  • The wolf disguises himself as a sheepdog in "The Three Little Pigs"
  1. Complicity: Villain forces victim to act
  • The queen forces Snow White to eat the poisoned apple in "Snow White"
  • The witch forces Hansel and Gretel to enter the oven in "Hansel and Gretel"
  • The stepmother forces Cinderella to do all the chores in "Cinderella"
  • The giant forces Jack to steal from him in "Jack and the Beanstalk"
  • The wolf forces the pigs to let him in their houses in "The Three Little Pigs"
  1. Villainy: Villain causes harm
  • The queen tries to kill Snow White in "Snow White"
  • The witch tries to eat Hansel and Gretel in "Hansel and Gretel"
  • The stepmother mistreats Cinderella in "Cinderella"
  • The giant tries to eat Jack in "Jack and the Beanstalk"
  • The wolf blows down the pigs' houses in "The Three Little Pigs"
  1. Lack: Need is identified
  • The princess needs to be rescued in "The Princess and the Dragon"
  • The kingdom needs a new ruler in "The Sword in the Stone"
  • The hero needs to find true love in "Beauty and the Beast"
  • The village needs to be saved from a monster in "The Seven Samurai"
  • The hero needs to find a way home in "The Odyssey"
  1. Mediation: Misfortune or lack is made known
  • The king announces a contest to find a wife for his son in "Cinderella"
  • The queen announces a contest to find a husband for her daughter in "The Princess and the Pea"
  • The king announces a contest to find a husband for his daughter in "The Frog Princess"
  • The emperor announces a contest to find a husband for his daughter in "The Nightingale"
  • The king announces a contest to find a husband for his daughter in "The Golden Bird"
  1. Counteraction: Hero chooses to act
  • The hero decides to rescue the princess in "The Princess and the Dragon"
  • The hero decides to pull the sword from the stone in "The Sword in the Stone"
  • The hero decides to defeat the monster in "Beowulf"
  • The hero decides to find the treasure in "Treasure Island"
  • The hero decides to find the killer in "Murder on the Orient Express"
  1. Departure: Hero leaves home
  • Dorothy leaves Kansas in "The Wizard of Oz"
  • Luke Skywalker leaves Tatooine in "Star Wars"
  • Frodo leaves the Shire in "The Lord of the Rings"
  • Harry Potter leaves Privet Drive in "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone"
  • Neo leaves the Matrix in "The Matrix"
  1. First function of the donor: Hero receives magical agent
  • Cinderella receives a dress and glass slippers from the fairy godmother in "Cinderella"
  • Aladdin receives a lamp from the genie in "Aladdin"
  • Harry Potter receives a wand from Ollivander in "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone"
  • Dorothy receives the ruby slippers from Glinda in "The Wizard of Oz"
  • Neo receives the red pill from Morpheus in "The Matrix"
  1. Hero's reaction: Hero uses magical agent
  • Cinderella uses the glass slippers to attend the ball in "Cinderella"
  • Aladdin uses the lamp to summon the genie in "Aladdin"
  • Harry Potter uses the wand to cast spells in "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone"
  • Dorothy uses the ruby slippers to return home in "The Wizard of Oz"
  • Neo uses his newfound abilities to fight the agents in "The Matrix"
  1. Receipt of a new appearance: Hero acquires new appearance
  • Cinderella receives a new dress and glass slippers from the fairy godmother in "Cinderella"
  • The Beast transforms into a prince in "Beauty and the Beast"
  • The Ugly Duckling becomes a swan in "The Ugly Duckling"
  • The Frog Prince becomes a prince again in "The Frog Prince"
  • The Little Mermaid becomes human in "The Little Mermaid"
  1. Punishment: Villain is punished
  • The witch is burned in the oven in "Hansel and Gretel"
  • The queen
Give 5 examples for each of the narratemes 16-31 (See Vladimir Propp's Narrative 31)

Pro Search

7 steps completed

Answer

Here are five examples for each of the narratemes 16-31 according to Vladimir Propp's Narrative 31:
  1. Hero and villain in direct combat
  • Harry Potter and Voldemort's final battle in "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows"
  • Luke Skywalker and Darth Vader's lightsaber duel in "Star Wars: Episode VI - Return of the Jedi"
  • Simba and Scar's fight for the Pride Lands in "The Lion King"
  • Neo and Agent Smith's showdown in "The Matrix"
  • Batman and the Joker's confrontation in "The Dark Knight"
  1. The hero is branded
  • The mark of the Deathly Hallows on Harry Potter's hand in "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows"
  • The Mockingjay pin in "The Hunger Games"
  • The scar on Simba's eye in "The Lion King"
  • The tattoo on Lisbeth Salander's back in "The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo"
  • The "A" on Hester Prynne's chest in "The Scarlet Letter"
  1. The villain is defeated
  • The Wicked Witch of the West's death in "The Wizard of Oz"
  • The White Witch's defeat in "The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe"
  • The Joker's capture in "The Dark Knight"
  • The defeat of the Decepticons in "Transformers"
  • The destruction of the Death Star in "Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope"
  1. The initial misfortune or lack is liquidated
  • The Beast's transformation back into a prince in "Beauty and the Beast"
  • The restoration of the rightful king in "The Lion King"
  • The return of the rightful heir to the throne in "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King"
  • The resolution of the conflict between the Montagues and Capulets in "Romeo and Juliet"
  • The restoration of the rightful ruler in "The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian"
  1. The hero returns
  • Dorothy's return to Kansas in "The Wizard of Oz"
  • Odysseus' return to Ithaca in "The Odyssey"
  • Frodo's return to the Shire in "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King"
  • Simba's return to the Pride Lands in "The Lion King"
  • Harry Potter's return to Hogwarts in "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone"
I hope these examples help you understand the narratemes better!
Give five examples for each of the following narratems (Vladimir Propp's Narrative, Morphology of a Magic Tale, 31 Narratems) №12. First function of the donor: Hero is tested. Example: In "The Lion King," Simba is tested by Scar. №13. Hero's reaction: Hero reacts to the actions of the future donor. Example: In "The Lion King," Simba is angry with Rafiki for telling him to look in the water. №14. Receipt of a magical agent: Hero acquires a magical agent. Example: In "Harry Potter," Harry receives his wand. №15. Guidance: Hero is transferred, delivered, or led to the object of search. Example: In "Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark," Indiana Jones is led to the Ark of the Covenant. №23. Unrecognized arrival: Hero unrecognized. Example: In "The Count of Monte Cristo," Edmond Dantès returns to France under a false identity. №24. Unfounded claims: False hero presents unfounded claims. Example: In "The Wizard of Oz," the Wizard presents himself as a powerful wizard but is later revealed to be a fraud. №25. Difficult task: Hero is given a difficult task. Example: In "The Hobbit," Bilbo is tasked with stealing the Arkenstone from Smaug.

Pro Search

5 steps completed

Answer

Here are five examples for each of the following narratemes from Vladimir Propp's Narrative, Morphology of a Magic Tale, 31 Narratems: №12. First function of the donor: Hero is tested.
  1. In "The Lion King," Simba is tested by Scar.
  2. In "The Hunger Games," Katniss is tested by the Gamemakers.
  3. In "The Lord of the Rings," Frodo is tested by the Ring's power.
  4. In "Star Wars: A New Hope," Luke is tested by the Force.
  5. In "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone," Harry is tested by the Mirror of Erised.
№13. Hero's reaction: Hero reacts to the actions of the future donor.
  1. In "The Lion King," Simba is angry with Rafiki for telling him to look in the water.
  2. In "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone," Harry is angry with Dumbledore for not telling him about the Mirror of Erised.
  3. In "The Lord of the Rings," Frodo is angry with Gandalf for not taking the Ring from him.
  4. In "Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back," Luke is angry with Yoda for not training him properly.
  5. In "The Hunger Games," Katniss is angry with Haymitch for not preparing her for the Quarter Quell.
№14. Receipt of a magical agent: Hero acquires a magical agent.
  1. In "Harry Potter," Harry receives his wand.
  2. In "The Lord of the Rings," Frodo receives the Ring.
  3. In "Star Wars: A New Hope," Luke receives his lightsaber.
  4. In "The Lion King," Simba receives his father's knowledge.
  5. In "The Hunger Games," Katniss receives her Mockingjay pin.
№15. Guidance: Hero is transferred, delivered, or led to the object of search.
  1. In "Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark," Indiana Jones is led to the Ark of the Covenant.
  2. In "The Lord of the Rings," Frodo is led to Mount Doom.
  3. In "Star Wars: A New Hope," Luke is led to the Death Star.
  4. In "The Lion King," Simba is led to the Pride Lands.
  5. In "The Hunger Games," Katniss is led to the Capitol.
№23. Unrecognized arrival: Hero unrecognized.
  1. In "The Count of Monte Cristo," Edmond Dantès returns to France under a false identity.
  2. In "The Bourne Identity," Jason Bourne wakes up with amnesia and doesn't recognize himself.
  3. In "The Prestige," Alfred Borden is revealed to have a twin brother.
  4. In "The Sixth Sense," Malcolm Crowe is revealed to be dead.
  5. In "The Usual Suspects," Verbal Kint is revealed to be Keyser Söze.
№24. Unfounded claims: False hero presents unfounded claims.
  1. In "The Wizard of Oz," the Wizard presents himself as a powerful wizard but is later revealed to be a fraud.
  2. In "The Dark Knight," the Joker presents himself as the hero of Gotham but is actually a villain.
  3. In "The Empire Strikes Back," Darth Vader presents himself as Luke's father but Luke doesn't believe him.
  4. In "The Hunger Games," President Snow presents himself as a benevolent leader but is actually a tyrant.
  5. In "The Lord of the Rings," Saruman presents himself as an ally but is actually a traitor.
№25. Difficult task: Hero is given a difficult task.
  1. In "The Hobbit," Bilbo is tasked with stealing the Arkenstone from Smaug.
  2. In "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire," Harry is tasked with competing in the Triwizard Tournament.
  3. In "The Lord of the Rings," Frodo is tasked with destroying the Ring.
  4. In "The Hunger Games," Katniss is tasked with surviving the Hunger Games.
  5. In "Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back," Luke is tasked with rescuing Han Solo from Jabba the Hutt.
What structures are there for analyzing movie scripts, myths, fairy tales, books, etc.? (e.g., monomyth, 3-act structure, etc.)

Pro Search

3 steps completed

Answer

Structures for Analyzing Stories

There are various structures and theories for analyzing different types of stories, including myths, fairy tales, books, and movies. Here are some examples:

Structuralist Theory of Mythology

In structural anthropology, Claude Lévi-Strauss suggests that mythology can be approached the same way as language can be approached by the same structuralist methods used to address language. Thus, Lévi-Strauss offers a structuralist theory of mythology, which involves analyzing the commonalities between the “mythemes” of a story to understand its categories. Furthermore, a structural approach should account for all versions of a myth, as all versions are relevant to the function of the myth as a whole
1
2
.

Monomyth or Hero's Journey

The monomyth, also known as the hero's journey, is a common template of stories that involve a hero who goes on an adventure, is victorious in a decisive crisis, and comes home changed or transformed. This structure was popularized by Joseph Campbell in his book "The Hero with a Thousand Faces" and has been used to analyze various stories, including myths, fairy tales, and movies
3
4
.

Three-Act Structure

The three-act structure is a common story structure used in movies, plays, and novels. It involves dividing a story into three parts: the setup, confrontation, and resolution. The setup introduces the characters, setting, and conflict. The confrontation involves the main character facing obstacles and challenges. The resolution resolves the conflict and concludes the story
5
6
.

Structural Analysis of Fairy Tales

E. Meletinsky suggests that fairy tales are a lighter transposition of the subjects narrated in myths and therefore are less closely pressured to the triple criterion of consistency. Meletinsky also suggests that all fairy tales, from the point of view of the structure, must be traced back to only one type. He believes that the total system of functions has the character of "metastucture"
7
8
.

Other Structures

There are many other structures and theories for analyzing stories, including Syd Field's paradigm worksheet, which is a riff on the three-act structure and is used to analyze screenplays
9
.
Additionally, there are various screenplay structures that screenwriters can use to tell their cinematic stories, such as the Fabula/Syuzhet Structure
5
.
Overall, the choice of structure or theory depends on the type of story being analyzed and the purpose of the analysis.

Related

What is the difference between a beat sheet and a script analysis worksheet
How can script analysis worksheets be used to address emotional beats in a screenplay
What are some other screenplay structures besides the 3-act structure and the monomyth