How do we measure intelligence

Intelligence quotient
Intelligence quotient
Standardized score assessing human intelligence
An IQ is a total score derived from standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Origin of Term
Coined by psychologist William Stern in 1912 as 'Intelligenzquotient' for scoring intelligence tests.
Modern Scoring
Raw scores are transformed to a normal distribution with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.
Intelligence is typically measured through standardized tests designed to assess various cognitive abilities and skills. The most widely used tests are: Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests measure a range of cognitive abilities like reasoning, problem-solving, memory, and processing speed. Popular IQ tests include the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Stanford-Binet test. These tests aim to measure general intelligence or "g" factor, which represents the ability to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment. However, critics argue that IQ tests fail to capture the full scope of human intelligence, neglecting aspects like creativity and social intelligence. A key distinction is made between measuring "thinking" (intelligence) versus "knowing" (achievement). Intelligence tests should minimize the influence of acquired knowledge and focus on assessing cognitive processes like attention, simultaneous processing, successive processing, and planning. Tests relying heavily on vocabulary, arithmetic, or general knowledge are considered measures of achievement rather than intelligence. Some experts propose measuring intelligence by evaluating cognitive processes associated with different brain regions, such as selective attention (base of brain), understanding relationships (back of brain), sequencing (sides of brain), and executive functions like planning (frontal lobe). Alternative theories suggest assessing multiple intelligences like analytical, creative, and practical abilities through tests like Sternberg's Multidimensional Abilities Test. In summary, while IQ tests are widely used, there is ongoing debate around how to best define and measure the multifaceted concept of intelligence.
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