Reducción Objetiva Orquestada

Answer
The Reduction Objective Orchestrated (Orch-OR) is a theory about the functioning of the brain and consciousness proposed by physicist Roger Penrose and anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff in the early 1990s. This theory suggests that consciousness originates within neurons and not from the connection between them. It is based on the concepts of quantum physics, which studies the phenomena of matter at the subatomic level, where the laws of classical physics do not apply. The Orch-OR theory proposes that consciousness arises from quantum phenomena such as entanglement and quantum tunneling, which occur at the subatomic level within neurons. Penrose and Hameroff argue that these quantum processes are governed by a geometric logic and that the basic units of matter, such as atoms and photons, have a "toroidal" shape, similar to a donut. They suggest that the brain also organizes itself in waves with this structure. The Orch-OR theory aims to explain how something material, such as the brain, can produce an immaterial phenomenon, such as consciousness. This theory has been the subject of debate and criticism, particularly due to the difficulty of observing quantum phenomena in complex biological systems like the brain, which are subject to thermal noise and decoherence. However, it has also inspired new research and hypotheses about the relationship between quantum physics and consciousness. In summary, the Reduction Objective Orchestrated (Orch-OR) is a theory that proposes that consciousness arises from quantum processes within neurons, governed by a geometric logic, and that the brain organizes itself in waves with a toroidal structure similar to that of basic units of matter. This theory has been the subject of debate and criticism, but it has also inspired new research and hypotheses about the relationship between quantum physics and consciousness.
Related
qué es la reducción objetiva orquestada
cómo se relaciona la reducción objetiva orquestada con la conciencia
quiénes son los científicos que han desarrollado la teoría de la reducción objetiva orquestada