Amateur moon radio station

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The first amateur radio station on the moon, JS1YMG, was established by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As part of the Smart Lander for Investigating Moon (SLIM) mission, two small lunar surface probes, LEV-1 and LEV-2, were released just before touchdown. LEV-2 collects data while moving on the lunar surface, and LEV-1, which has the amateur radio license JS1YMG, receives the data. LEV-1 has been transmitting Morse code on 437.41 MHz since January 19, 2024, using a 1 W UHF antenna with circular polarization1. Before this, amateur radio operators used a technique called Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) communication, or moon bounce, to communicate globally. This technique relies on the propagation of radio waves from an Earth-based transmitter, which are reflected off the moon and received on Earth236. EME communication requires specialized equipment and careful planning due to factors such as the moon's position in the sky, time of day, season, and weather9. The signals from JS1YMG can be analyzed and decoded, as demonstrated by Daniel Estévez's (EA4GPZ) blog, which introduced the method and extraction results for demodulating Morse code from the signal1. However, it's unclear how long signals will be heard, as SLIM was not designed to survive a lunar night, which lasts about 14 days1.
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