How are crop circles formed?

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Crop circles, also known as crop formations or corn circles, are patterns created by flattening a crop, usually a cereal. The term was first coined in the early 1980s by Colin Andrews. While there are various theories about their origins, including obscure natural causes or alien origins, there is no scientific evidence supporting these explanations. The scientific consensus is that crop circles are constructed by human beings as hoaxes, advertising, or art1. The most widely known method for a person or group to construct a crop formation is to tie one end of a rope to an anchor point and the other end to a board which is used to crush the plants. It is also possible to bend grass without breaking it, especially if it has recently rained1. In 1991, two hoaxers, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley, took credit for having created many circles throughout England. They demonstrated how they stomped down the crop without breaking the actual wheat shafts and used ropes tied to a central stake to make the circles. They also used a bit of wire hanging down from a baseball cap like a gun sight to line things up and make sure their lines were straight2. Despite the evidence of human creation, some people still believe in non-human origins of crop circles. Some theories suggest that they are created by fluctuations in the Earth’s natural magnetic forces, or that they are messages from extraterrestrial beings. However, these theories lack scientific evidence12. Crop circles have been a subject of speculation by various paranormal, ufological, and anomalistic investigators. They have also been incorporated into the belief systems of many New Age groups. Despite the lack of scientific evidence supporting non-human origins, crop circles continue to intrigue people due to their complexity and the mystery surrounding their formation1.
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The crop circle evolves | Nature
Pssst, Crop Circles Were a Hoax - JSTOR Daily
Crop circle | Mystery, Phenomenon, Hoax | Britannica
Crop Circles Were Made by Supernatural Forces. Named Doug and Dave ...
Crop Circles: The Art of the Hoax | Arts & Culture| Smithsonian ...
Display marks 25 years of crop circles study - BBC News
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