What is posthumanism?

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Posthumanism, also known as post-humanism, is a philosophical and critical theory movement that challenges the presence of anthropocentrism in 21st-century thought. It encompasses various branches, including antihumanism, cultural posthumanism, philosophical posthumanism, posthuman condition, and posthuman transhumanism1. Antihumanism is critical of traditional humanism and traditional ideas about the human condition, vitality, and agency. Cultural posthumanism critically examines the foundational assumptions of humanism and its legacy, questioning historical notions of "human" and "human nature." Philosophical posthumanism draws on cultural posthumanism and examines the ethical implications of expanding moral concern and extending subjectivities beyond the human species. The posthuman condition involves the deconstruction of the human condition by critical theorists. Posthuman transhumanism is an ideology and movement that seeks to develop and make available technologies that enable immortality and greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities to achieve a "posthuman future"1. Posthumanism questions the primacy of the human and the necessity of the human as a category. It aims to challenge anthropocentrism, which places humans above other life forms, and rejects the view of humans as autonomous and fully defined by their biology. Posthumanism seeks to place humans back into a more attentively framed network of nonhuman others while recognizing the exclusions and injustices that pervade Enlightenment-era humanist thinking10.
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