what is the most energy-consuming organ in the human body

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The most energy-consuming organ in the human body is the brain. Despite representing only 2% of an adult's body weight, the brain accounts for up to 20% of the body's total energy use146. This high energy consumption is due to the brain's richness in nerve cells, or neurons, which require a significant amount of energy to function3. The energy used by the brain is primarily derived from glucose, a form of sugar, which is the primary source of energy for every cell in the body3. A study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA indicates that two-thirds of the brain's energy budget is used to help neurons "fire" or send signals. The remaining third is used for "housekeeping," or cell-health maintenance1. It's important to note that while the brain is the most energy-consuming organ overall, when considering the specific metabolic rates (Ki; in kcal · kg−1 · d−1) of major organs and tissues, the heart and kidneys have the highest Ki values, twice those for liver and brain2. However, because the brain is much larger than the heart and kidneys, it consumes more energy in total. In conclusion, the brain's high energy consumption is crucial for its complex functions, including thinking, memory, and learning, which are closely linked to glucose levels and how efficiently the brain uses this fuel source3.
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