staysail

Answer
A staysail is a triangular fore-and-aft sail set on a stay running forward from the mast to the deck or bowsprit. It serves several purposes:
  1. Provides additional sail area and driving force when reaching or sailing upwind in moderate to heavy winds. The staysail's low center of effort reduces heel and weather helm compared to a larger headsail.
  2. Allows reducing sail area by furling or removing the larger headsail while keeping the staysail set. This provides a balanced sail plan in high winds without overpowering the boat.
  3. Facilitates tacking by providing sail area forward to help turn the bow through the wind when the headsail is furled or removed.
  4. On cruising boats, a staysail is often hanked on an inner forestay, making it easier to handle than a larger headsail when sailing shorthanded.
The staysail is most effective on a close reach to broad reach, with apparent wind angles from 50-130 degrees. It should be trimmed like a headsail, easing the sheet until the luff just begins to curl, then trimming in slightly. Proper sheeting angles and lead positions are important for good sail shape and avoiding turbulence. Rigging for a staysail requires an inner forestay, running backstays to counteract the staysail's force, and reinforced deck attachments to handle the loads. Furling staysails use a specialized furler like the FX+ system.
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