which nutrients in milk are water-soluble?

Answer
Based on the search results, the key water-soluble nutrients found in milk are:
  • Vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6, B12, and vitamin C
  • Folate
  • Choline
The search results indicate that the concentrations of these water-soluble vitamins in milk can be influenced by factors like maternal diet, supplementation, and stage of lactation. For example, thiamin, niacin, and pantothenic acid increase during lactation, while B6, B12, and vitamin C gradually decrease . The search results also note that maintaining adequate levels of these water-soluble vitamins in breast milk is important for the health and development of the breastfed infant .
Is this different in cows' milk?
Answer
Based on the search results provided, the key water-soluble nutrients found in cows' milk are:
  • Vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6, B12, and vitamin C
  • Folate
  • Choline
The search results indicate that the concentrations of these water-soluble vitamins in cows' milk can be influenced by factors like the cow's diet, stage of lactation, and supplementation. For example:
  • Cows' milk has higher concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 compared to human milk .
  • Donkey milk has higher concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, and vitamin B12 compared to cows' milk .
  • Supplementation of certain water-soluble vitamins like biotin and choline can increase their levels in cows' milk and improve production .
However, the search results also note that in general, cows are able to synthesize most of the B vitamins in their rumen and do not have an absolute dietary requirement for supplementation of water-soluble vitamins, except in some specific cases .
Related
what are the differences in water-soluble vitamin content between cow's milk and human milk
how does the water-soluble vitamin content in cow's milk compare to other dairy products
what are some other sources of water-soluble vitamins besides milk